Contribution - Full length original research article of more than 10 pages. Note- A short self-contained original research article of 10 pages or less, focusing on a particular result that does not provide enough material for a full length Contribution. Communication - A short article outlining a new result or new research that can later be expanded to a full length Contribution. Please note that Communications should be sent directly to a member of the Editorial Board chosen by the author. The Editor will then conduct a review of the paper, ask the author for any necessary revisions, and will "communicate" the final paper to the Editorial Office. Erratum- Concise correction to article of the same author published in the journal. The full publication data of the original paper should be including.
Perspectives - Submission that does not provide a specific new research finding or result, but rather presents a survey of results and research in a particular area.
Contact Details for Submission
Online submission to the journal prior to acceptance Submission to this journal precedes totally online via University of Tehran Editorial System. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail.
It is essential to give an e-mail address when submitting a manuscript. Articles must be written in standard English.
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.
Changes to authorship
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts: Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed. After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement'). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement. Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.
Retained author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retains certain rights; for details you are referred to.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Language and language services
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.
It is essential to give an e-mail address when submitting a manuscript. Articles must be written in standard English.
If the LaTeX file is suitable, proofs will be produced without rekeying the text. LaTeX style file package (including detailed instructions for LaTeX preparation) can be obtained from the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN): see below, in the directory /tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/elsarticle. CTAN is an archive with up-to-date copies of all the public-domain versions of TeX, LaTeX, Metafont and ancillary programs, which is made available via a mirrored network of FTP servers. You can enter the CTAN archive via a web interface in the UK ( http://www.tex.ac.uk/), in the USA http://www.ctan.org/), or in Germany ( http://www.dante.de/software/ctan) (page in German). You can search for a package on CTAN via http://www.ucc.ie/cgi-bin/ctan/. You can also enter the archive via FTP at ftp://ftp.tex.ac.uk/, at ftp://ftp.dante.de/, at ftp://ctan.tug.org/, or at one of the many mirror servers; see for a list the UK or USA CTAN web pages. When a CTAN server does not respond, please try another one. Note that CTAN is not related to University of Tehran, and that Tehran University's Customer support cannot accept complaints or answer questions about the availability of any CTAN server. Figures may be inserted in the usual way using an includegraphics command, at the position in the article where they are cited. Your LaTeX file will be most useful as input for the printed article if you obey the following rules of thumb: 1. Be consistent. If you use a macro for a phrase, use it throughout. 2. Use standard LaTeX mark-up. Do not hardcode your own layout for e.g. section headings, but use the usual LaTeX macro for this purpose. 3. Keep it simple. Do not define macros that accomplish complicated layout. They will also make the input process complicated.
Introduction State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Theory/calculation A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and laid the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.
Results Results should be clear and concise.
Conclusions The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Essential title page information
• Title.Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. • Author names and affiliations.Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. • Corresponding author.Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author. • Present/permanent address.If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Electronic artwork General points • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. • Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font. • Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol. • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. • Provide captions to illustrations separately. • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version. • Submit each figure as a separate file.
Formats Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics". TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi. TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi. TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required. DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is". Please do not: • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low; • Supply files that are too low in resolution; • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Figure captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Text graphics Text graphics may be embedded in the text at the appropriate position. If you are working with LaTeX and have such features embedded in the text, these can be left. Further, high-resolution graphics files must be provided separately whether or not the graphics are embedded. See further under Electronic artwork.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Citation in text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication" Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
References in a special issue Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages Endnote ( http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager ( http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to word-processing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.
Reference style Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given. Example: "..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones  obtained a different result ...." List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Examples: Reference to a journal publication:  J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2000) 51–59. Reference to a book:  W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, third ed., Macmillan, New York, 1979. Reference to a chapter in an edited book:  G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 1999, pp. 281–304.
University of Tehran accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in University of Tehran Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com/.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item. Ensure that the following items are present: One Author designated as corresponding Author: • E-mail address • Full postal address • Telephone and fax numbers All necessary files have been uploaded • Keywords
may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received. • All figure captions • All tables (including title, description, footnotes) Further considerations • Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked" • References are in the correct format for this journal • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web) • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print • If only color on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes.
Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. The correct format for citing a DOI is shown as follows (example taken from a document in the journal Physics Letters B): doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059 When you use the DOI to create URL hyperlinks to documents on the web, they are guaranteed never to change.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. University of Tehran now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/systemreqs. If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to University of Tehran in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. For an extra charge, paper offprint's can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.
Additional Information Author inquiries
For enquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available) please visit this journal's homepage. Also accessible from here is information on copyright, frequently asked questions and more. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher.
For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available) please visit this journal's homepage.. Also accessible from here is information on copyright, frequently asked questions and more. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher.