Three Graceful Operations

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Mathematics, Clayton State University, Morrow, Georgia 30260, USA

Abstract

A graph of size n is said to be graceful when is possible toassign distinct integers from {0, 1, . . . , n} to its verticesand {|f(u)−f(v)| : uv ∈ E(G)} consists of n integers. Inthis paper we present broader families of graceful graphs; these families are obtained via three different operations: the third power of a caterpillar, the symmetric product of G and K2 , and the disjoint union of G and Pm, where G is a special type of graceful graph named - graph. Moreover, the majority of the graceful labelings obtained here correspond to the most restrictive kind, they are -labelings. These labelings are in the core of this research area due to the fact that they can be used to create other types of graph labelings, almost independently of the nature of these labelings.

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